Sunday, August 27, 2017

2016 Race, Year in Review

Well how do we begin to talk about 2016 without mentioning 2015 and the Beast Series.  The Beast Series went well, I was able to finish in 2nd place overall and put behind me my first 100 miler and 420 miles of racing.  2016 was Gina's year to go for the beast and my turn to take a different approach, recover and not be as focused on racing ultras.  Below is how the year played out.  I didn't start the year with a race plan, I just let it unfold as the year went on and as my fitness allowed it to play out.

The week after the Holiday Lake 50k we started a Low Carb High Fat Diet.
03/19/16 - I ran and won the Terrapin Mtn half Marathon in 1:57.49
I had never considered the Terrapin Half and had planned to go and crew Gina.  Then Alexis Thomas mentioned she was thinking about it and it hit me, that was a perfect idea.   A "short" high intensity race that I'd never done before.  A race that has a lot of elevation and technical running with is exactly what I love.    
Doing some prior race recon, I had hoped I could accomplish a podium finish, but wasn't sure how the new diet and approach would work out.  I did a couple HIT time trails to dial in the HR limit I was going to race under.  I choose 162 and tried to keep it dialed back when the alarm rang out knowing that by not hitting the red line that I would be able to keep a high intensity pace longer and avoid the dreaded fade.  
I decided to go without food or water for the race.  I did have an "emergency" gel with me if things started to go south but I ended up not needing it.  I got a handoff of water at the 4 mile point before heading up to the Terrapin summit and then some water at the 2nd water stop and that was it.  
As a side note, I was told I was in 3rd place at 4 miles and only passed one other guy.  No one mentioned I was in first place so I thought I was duking it would for 2nd with Josh Zealand and even shared this with him at mile 11.5.  So after the finish I said to Clark, "so how far ahead was 1st place?"  Which made him confused as he pointed to me and said, "you are first place."  
Uh shocker!  1st place, that's cool!  
04/16/16 - I ran my first road marathon, the Blue Ridge Marathon in 3:17.28, finishing 8th.
Now for a real test.  I had done some HR recon on the course and did a dry run a few weeks before and thought I could pull down a 3:18 but the goal was a top 10.  
I set my HR alarm at 160 for the big climbs but planned on staying below 155 for most of the race.  I planned to use the water on the course and had Gina hand off a baggie of a little race mix I had put together (1 banana, almond butter and a tsp of 100% cocoa.  She's aptly named these shit bags, because of the way they look.)  I took one of these at the Campground after Roanoke Mtn around mile 10 and then another at Peakwood which I carried with me until about mile 18.  
I walked through a few water stops to drink water and walked around the water stop loop on Peakwood.  Other than that, I didn't walk any of the course and really didn't feel  like I needed to.  The race went according to plan.  Probably because I followed the plan.  
06/18/16 - Highland Sky 40M - 7:17 and 9th overall
I'm still working on the LCHF protocol and how to race in it.  I've done the races above with very little food and water.  This would be a little different.  I started using UCAN as a drink mix and making some almond meal waffles that I add almond butter to and taking a few Artisana nut butter packets.  
This is a race that I've done one other time and really lost out in the last half.  The same thing would happen again.  I ran the first half pretty conservatively and felt good, but when I sat down to change my shoes at the Big halfway aid station, I began getting cramps.  I nursed things through the next miles of the Road Across the Sky and thought I was in the clear but somewhere in the boulderfield in the next section I started to get light headed and caught my toe a few times which set the cramps back in motion.  
I could have used some carbs in the last section because I started to get light headed.  So having some UCAN on hand or snacking on some banana chips would have been a good idea.  Although no, or no carbs have worked in the non ultra races.  I've since learned to incorporate a few more carbs during an ultra, rather than trying to stay so low carb during an ultra event.   
This again, had me dial things back and under control until the section they call the butt slide.  This is a mtn bike downhill trail that is a very steep downhill with tons of rocks and in some places a flagged path that follows no trail.  I was doing good until I caught a toe again and started in with the cramps.  So I limped along, stopped a few times, and thought for sure I'd get passed by a few runners.  That never happened and I was able finish in a decent time but I know I left a lot of time out on that course and can do a lot better.  
09/02/16 - The Rut Vertical Kilometer - My first vertical race and it was painfully great.  An abbreviated course didn't disappoint in regard to pain delivered.
I do love the pain of riding the red line.  This was a rough uphill race that had me gasping for air the whole time.  Some of the footing was very sketchy towards the top but it was a great time.  
09/04/16 - The Rut 50k - This was an abbreviated course due to snow.
I had hoped the VK race would take enough out of me to enjoy this event and it did help but the conditions had all of us going more conservatively.  There was snow overnight and ice at Lone Peak so they took out the high elevation sections of the race.  We were all bummed but you can't argue with the decision.
We were greeted with HUGE snowflakes at the high point of the race and we ran through the snow for about 30 minutes.  The snow and rain caused much of the last 10 miles of the course to be nothing but mud, deep, thick mud.  It was a fun day to run in such a large event with 400+ other runners from all over the US.
11/12/16 - Richmond Marathon - The goal here was to run under 3:12 for a Boston Qualifier and at best run a 7min/mile pace.  Finished in 3:03:42.
Somewhere after the Blue Ridge Marathon I decided I wanted to try to qualify for Boston.  The Richmond Marathon seemed like a good place to do it.  It's late in the year and I always enjoy heading for Richmond for the weekend.  
The main issue with this is that I also wanted to PR at Hellgate which was a month later.
So to keep from blowing up my chances for a good Hellgate I decided to try to run a 7 min ave pace marathon at HR.  I choose 152 and thought if I could keep it dialed in I would minimize the odds of this affecting my Hellgate time.  
The plan was to run at a 152 HR until I knew for sure I could pick it up and hold on until the finish.  I spent the early miles running with a few friends, just chatting and enjoying a race.  I think at around mile 10 we got separated and each ran our own races.  I think I stopped at a few water stops and walked through drinking some water and then picked up a baggie of race mix I had put together (1 banana, almond butter and a tsp of 100% cocoa).  I eat that and then grabbed a second one to have on hand for later.
I think I slowed on the windy crossing of the bridge and then my pace slowed in the 18-22 mile section.  It was at mile 22 I knew I could pick it up and bring it home.  My pace went from around 7 min per mile down to 6:30 and below.  I was cruising in the last stretch and felt good.  Happy with my time and having plenty of room for a BQ. 
12/10/16 - Hellgate 100k - The goal here was to PR with running sub 12:30 and being in the top 10.  I ended up with a 13:05 and 13th place in what was one of the coldest events I've ever run.  Starting temp was at 23 and it bottomed out at 8 degrees.  It took 4 months to regain the feeling in my big and second toe on my right foot.
This event went from a race against the clock to managing the body and trying to keep my water supply from freezing up and not doing anything stupid.  It was a really wild event where the plan and goals were in a state of flux throughout.  Things were constantly being adjusted as the temps dropped and the cold took it's physical and mental toll on the body.  This was definitely a great race to have a crew and I'm thankful that Walker was there to help out.  
I think things were going well until mile 47 or so, at the big aid station at Bear Wallow Gap.  I tried to get refueled with some bulletproof coffee and I think that made my stomach go south.  So I managed that and a few pity parties in the next 13 miles to Day Creek.  Then, from there it was a big climb up to the BRP and then down to the finish.  I hiked/ran with the 1st female in this section and then she left me behind.  
As I finished up in 13 I wondered if I'd hear the same comment from Horton; 3rd loser!  But then 1st Master.  Yay!  He always follows that up with, "your not the first finisher over 40, just the 1st over 40 outside of the top 10."  See he gives the top 10 special prizes and then 1st 40+, 50+, 60+.   
It was a good year of racing and training.  I'm happy with the LCHF effects and am trying to dial in some of the details.  In general the major differences I've seen are;

  • Have not been hangry at all and overall less hungry which equals much less time thinking about food.
  • Can run up to 4.5 hours or 24 miles with only water.
  • I do not get sore very often.
  • Sleep better and need less
  • Tired less often 






Friday, February 10, 2017

You are better than you think you are

You are better than you think you are, you can do more than you think you can!
These are the words of Ken Chlouber the founder of the Leadville 100.

This quote pops into my head time and again.  It hit me most recently around mile 31 of the Highland Sky 40 miler.  I had hit a rough patch, was tired, cramping, light headed and "just doing my best" to keep moving forward when the quote entered my mind.  It provided a bit of a reset, I was approaching a literal high point of the race, within the "boulder field."  I stopped, looked out at the amazing view, stretched, took in a couple deep breaths and continued on with newfound energy.

As it was in this scenario, I commonly get a mind shift in an ultra, where I get taken out of the race and back into life, the bigness around me, and the insignificance of the present moment.  I've run enough ultras to know that the pain is only temporary and many times, within minutes of finishing all of the pain and misery are quickly washed away.

You have to push yourself to find your limit.  I realize that many people just don't care about their limit, that's fine, but for me and many people I know, the training, the quest, the failures, the successes, and the few times you get to ride that limit, oh yeah, that's what it's all about.  You learn that things aren't really that tough, that you can get through "it," and that life goes on.

So many people say that they "can't imagine" running 3, 5, 10, 100 miles.  Whatever you believe is the limit, why not go out and push it.  See if you can achieve it.  Maybe you can, maybe you can't.  Regardless you'll learn something in the process about the endeavor and yourself.  That's the real accomplishment.

Start dreaming up your next big challenge, there are so many places to begin.

It's easy to live in the bell curve, but what is the fun in that?

Happy New Year, may it be all that you want.

Sunday, December 13, 2015

It doesn't matter how fast or far you run if you can't make it to the start/finish line...... (**With revision**)

Oh Hellgate!
This was my third Hellgate 100k and this year it was the anchor event of the Beast Series.  It's been long year of racing and trying to keep the mental and physical wheels rolling.  These last three months have been more about tapering and recovering than training.  Thus the title of this post.  Even when you see what others are doing and you think to yourself, am I doing enough, you have to place physiology ahead of the desire to do more or what your friends are doing.

I had some mixed feelings on what this race would be like.  I got a bit, post Thanksgiving Illinois trip, run down 2 weeks before this race, so that was on my mind in regard to how I would perform.  Overall I felt like I could match my 2012 fitness and work on a 12 and a half hour finish and possible top 10.  I knew from 2012 that I spent a lot of time not moving and I didn't want that to happen this year.  I had my pre-race oatmeal and then bulletproof coffee on the way to the start.

It was gonna be warm so I started out in short sleeves and gloves and handheld.  HR was a bit high at the start but I knew it would settle down after the first climb.  I mentally set the limit at 155 and then wanted to stay below 150 after mile 8.  I switched out my handheld for a pack at Petites Gap.  I had Heed first and then went with EFS at the other drops (mile 25 and 47).

Everything was going pretty well until the rocky section before Bearwallow.  That kinda gut punched me and set me back mentally.  You just have to see it to believe it.  It's a gnarly section!  I just couldn't navigate the leaf covered rocks.  My right knee was a bit sensitive and was a minor factor at this point but I kept thinking about how this rocky section could really ruin you for the remainder of the race.

My problem from mile 50 was just not having the will to run when I could have on the mild ups.  You always do some bargaining with yourself and this is where I started.  I wasn't sure why I couldn't muster the will to run, I just didn't have it mentally.  Not sure why.  Low training during all this race tapering?  Being run down?  The unseasonable high 60 degree day?  The Beast effect?  Who knows, I'll probably have to do this race again to figure it out or come up with another theory.

**In hindsight, the lack of training after Grindstone had to be the cause.  The 50+ mile endurance just wasn't there.  There just wasn't time or I just didn't have the ability to put in high mileage weeks following the GS100 and the recovery from it.  I was able to hold on for a good MMTR50 finish but that only got me a decent 50 miles at Hellgate.  I just didn't have the endurance to have a good, last 16 miles of the race.  That doesn't change the overall feeling I had about it being a good finish to a tough year.  And, although I can analyze it now, I don't think I could have changed anything.  The only area to improve upon was the fitness leading up to Grindstone.**

I'm pretty happy with my performance at Hellgate and the overall plan for this year.  I could have done more, but keeping in mind my overall health, I think I took the right approach and stayed on the conservative side.  You have to make it to the start/finish line.  I hadn't planned on mental side of the Beast.  It's a big investment mentally and physically.  The further you make it in the year the more paranoid you get about making it to the next race and then it switches to just wanting to be done.  I do know that with the amount of tapering that is involved I actually looked forward to the races and getting to go for a long run.

You are better than you think you are and you can do more than you think you can....  Where will this adventure take me in 2016.

14th Overall/First Master in 13:23:42
Lynchburg Ultra Series - 4th Overall in the 24:26:05
Beast Series - 2nd Overall in the 61:06:50

Racing Miles in 2015
Holiday Lake 50k - 32.25
Terrapin Mtn 50k - 31
Promise Land 50k - 34.5
San Juan Solstice - 50M
Iron Mtn - 50M
Grindstone - 101.86
MMTR 50M - 51.25
Hellgate 100k - 66.6
Total - 417.46

Friday, October 16, 2015

Grindstone 100 - It's only a 100 miles.....

I don't emote or celebrate well.  I typically handle things as tasks.  You set out to do something, you do it, you move on.  This is my modus operandi.  Since the beginning of my ultra career, even though I hadn't been a runner of any distance, I figured if others could do it, I could do it too.  It's not the ability to do the task that stresses me, its the ability to do it to my satisfaction.  

This would be my 40th ultra (1st was the 2/16/02 Holiday Lake 50k).

So that brings me to my first 100 miler.  Although the Hellgate 100k was my furthest race/run, I didn't worry so much about finishing as I did finishing in the 23-24 hour range that I thought was possible, being able to run to the end, not be visited by the cramp monster, to keep my feet from falling apart with blisters, and to stay on top of my calories so I didn't get set back by a bonk.  

I've run with both Joe Dudak and Johnny Robinson and I knew their times at Grindstone were in the 23:09-23:16 time frame, so I figured that was a realistic goal.  That and wanting to finish in the daylight were two things I was focused on.  I had my pace chart set up and was going to use it as a reference if I felt good.  

Here I am a week later and I can't say that I've processed the race yet.  The majority of the pain has escaped my memory and I am left with the positives and some of the emotion of the event.  Writing this will be my way of looking back.  Following the race I was left with some left knee swelling and pain and right anterior tibialis inflammation.  

Leading up the Grindstone I was feeling good.  I did the Iron Mtn 50 miler on September 5 in 8:38 and that was my last test before Grindstone.  I ended up going out the next day to get more time on my feet and capitalize on this last big training weekend.  From here it was a week of recovery and then 3 weeks of taper.  

I started to get a little antsy about the 4 weeks of not running long, so on September 18th I decided to do one of my favorite 20 milers to shake out the nerves and get in a long heart rate run.  This went really well and running at heart rate I was able to run the loop in one of my fastest times.  

This last long run really paid off for me when the race got postponed for a week.  Although I felt like a slug for so little running in this extended taper, I was actually to the point of looking forward to running and the race start.  

Gear/Game Plan;
Nathan pack with 64oz bladder
     2 waffles
     1 clif bar
     Heed for the 1st or second water stop
     A buff, gloves, and very small packable jacket
     E-caps and protrysin pills
     Wet wipes
     4 Extra lithium batteries for either flashlight or headlamp (both took 4 AAs)
Princeton Tec AMP 4.0 flashlight - plenty of burn time on high
Princeton Tec Apex Headlight - should have been up to 9+ hours of light on low spot light.
Salomon Speedcross 3 shoes
Injinji Socks with Aquaphor on feet.
Salomon shorts (not compression)

2 hours before the race I ate my typical oatmeal concoction and had bullet proof coffee.

I had made some spanish rice and lentil portables (needed more salt) that I had in each of my drop bags.  These were great as my desire for sweet items at the aid stations got to be less and less.  I ate almost all of my portables during the race.  I had 2 packs of two in each drop bag to take as I came through those spots.  

I had hoped to keep my HR low for the entire race, 142 or below, but things started out a bit quicker than I thought and my alarm started buzzing early.  Somewhere in the first miles I turned that off and just went with the flow until things settled in.  Once my HR settled in, keeping it below 142 was easy.  
It started raining and the wind started blowing at around mile 3.  Things really cooled down and started to get foggy.  This made for worse visibility with a headlamp, so I used my flashlight about 90% of the time.  On the steep sections, I put the flashlight in my pack, and hiked, stooped over, using my hands to push off my knees for extra horsepower and to decrease the load on my legs.  Then once to the top, I'd grab my flashlight and turn off my headlamp and cruise on.  

For me it was critical to pick up my feet, to avoid catching a toe and falling, because I knew that anything like that would be a time killer in the late hours of the race.  So the flashlight was a big help and I concentrated on lifting my feet and picking them up on the pull through (higher knees and feet, then repeat).  

Although there were some steep climbs, I thought to myself that I was surprised at how runable the downhills were.  I didn't expect these early sections to be so runable.  

I got in to the Dowells Draft Aid station in 4:23ish, a bit behind my expectation but nothing I was worried about.  I kept telling myself, "it doesn't matter how fast you get to the turnaround if you don't have anything left, the last 50 are the real race, just keep chugging and take care of yourself, every minute/mile is an investment for tomorrows race."  And it really is all about investments, it's not what you have at the moment, it is what you keep for tomorrow or the next hour that makes the difference.  
Now for a big climb, descent and then some rolling terrain to the next Drop Bag and big aid station at mile 35.  I rolled in here a bit earlier than my projections at 7:10ish and felt pretty good.  It was good to see Gina, she took care of me, I changed shoes and socks, relubed, restocked and was off for the big 7 mile climb out of there.  It was a bit more than expected, but I just chugged along and was happy to be at the top and on to rolling double track to the next aid stations and turnaround.  These last 9 miles to the turnaround were relatively easy miles, nothing technical, just one foot in front of another terrain that slowly ticked by.  One negative of this section was that it was very very foggy.  Headlamp eating fog.  So I kept on with the flashlight.  

Closing in on the Reddish Knob aid station I met up with Todd Thomas and he said something about being in 5th of 6th place which was a big surprise.  After this aid station there are 2-2.5 miles of asphalt, some of which was at just the right incline where I didn't have a desire to run.  This is where I'd use landmarks or race flagging to run to one marker and then walk to the next, back and forth until things leveled out.  

I hit the turnaround in 11 hours which was just a bit off from what I expected but felt good.  Now it was time to retrace my steps and look forward to some daylight.  At mile 59.25 I hit the 7 mile downhill section back to North River Gap.  I was kind of dreading this section due to it's steep downhills and loose wet rocks.  I took this conservatively and I think this is where my left knee started to become a problem.  In hindsight, I wish I would have let gravity work its magic better and ran this section a bit faster so that my knees wouldn't have taken such a hit.  In addition, I didn't plan my hydration correctly and ran out of water, which didn't allow me to eat, in the 3-4 mile before the aid station.  I got to the AS with a mild bonk (Lesson 1 don't use the breaks too much.  Lesson 2 don't allow a bonk, stay ahead of food and drink).  

I got to NRG about 30 minutes behind schedule but felt pretty good.  This is where I picked up Chad as my pacer for the next 14 miles.  I relubed and restocked, drank some bulletproof coffee and had some very salty potatoes and then we set off for the last 50k of the race.  

I don't know what the deal was, but these daylight hours felt so much longer than the night time hours.  Shortly into this section I started to feel my left knee stiffen up and bother my running.  It wasn't something I have dealt with before and felt like I just needed to squat down and reset it.  It was a no go and this became the issue that kept most steep downhills to a shuffle.  It was strange, but there was a "just right" downhill that was just the right decline and just the right amount of rocks that I could run without any problem.  But anything else and it was a burden to keep a running pace. 

Chad got me in to Dowells Draft again at around 11:51.  I picked up Matt and we were off for the remaining 22 miles.  It started off pretty easy and then at the next aid station we were told we had a 4.5 mile climb to the top of Lookout Mtn.  This was rough, just slow gutting it out climbing, but it wasn't running so I wasn't too upset.  These miles were tough to not periodically stop and take a break.  In hindsight, I wish I would have both minimized justifying my occasional rest stops also taking in more time at the aid stations than I should have.  Prior to the race I was preparing myself for constant forward progress instead of chewing up minutes at the ASs.  I let this slide and justified my stops, but I should have told my crew to push me along (Lesson 3 the clock doesn't stop when you do, keep moving forward, the finish line won't come to you).

I remembered the turnoff from Elliott's knob being around 9 miles to go.  Once we hit this spot I knew we had it and started to play the numbers game.  Between mile 66 and here I didn't pay too much attention to the time, just stayed in gear and went with the flow.  But now it was math time.  We knew we had a sub 24, but how close we could get to 23 or 23:30 was yet to be realized.  

The downhill off of Elliott's is about as steep as coming down to the finish of Promise Land on Overstreet Falls Road.  This hurt a lot.  I couldn't really run it but I probably spent as much energy breaking as I would have letting loose.  My knee just couldn't let me go any faster.  But these next miles really ticked off slowly, they were mild, up and down, forcing you to decide on running slow or justifying a walk, mentally this is where you are going to make up time or loose it.  You can justify anything, but it was all runable.  

Next landmark I was looking for was the 1.5 mile to go spot where people were cheering us the day before.  I didn't think we would ever hit this spot, but we finally did, then the 1 mile to go sign.  From here the trail went back into the woods on a wide pretty section, we could see the lake and I knew it was almost over.  We navigated the sketchy up and down at the dam and then it was the last .2 on grass and the gravel road.  This last section is where it just hit home.

In most races there is a point at the end where it hits me, where the effort of the event crescendos into a peak and the emotions of the journey hit me, my mind does a quick rewind and summary and I recognize all that was involved on my end, the event organizers, and all the people that are cheering for me and collectively invested in my journey.  Sometimes this is only seconds and sometimes minutes but I enjoy that moment because it reminds me that we are all connected and not alone and that it really isn't a race, it's a journey and that each effort like this changes who you are and will be.  For me, these efforts make me better and more conscious of what I'm doing and the path that I am on.  

Grindstone 2015 was a big accomplishment - 10th in 23:17.03.  Thank you for being a part of it.  Now it's time to recover and get ready for the next two events in the Beast Series.


Friday, September 11, 2015

San Juan Solstice 50 miler 2.0

Race week; somewhere during this week they announced that the course would be the usual course and that we should prepare for lots of snow and high creek crossings.  The creeks are on the first climb, you climb 4500 feet and cross the creek 7 times.
6/23/15 - Ran the 6 mile loop and 2 mile cool down.
6/27/15 - San Juan Solstice 50m
We got out to Colorado on Thursday and drove to Lake City, where the race is headquartered.  Lake City sits at abut 8600ft elevation.  We hung out and tried to stay hydrated for the high elevation adventures that we had in store.
Coming out to do this race in 2013 gave me the impression that I should be able to run quite a bit better than the 12:37 I ran that year.  I felt good and my training was going great.
The race starts with a gradual climbs up a dirt road before heading off on the Alpine Gulch trail that climb climb climbs.
Due to the rapid snow melt the race had volunteers at each of the 7 creek crossings.  At the deepest ones they had rope assists.  I think it was the 3rd one where I went down waist deep and by the 4th my feet were frozen and numb.  Things came back to life as we climbed up to 13000 for the first time.  Once to the top the course rolls up and down before a huge 4000+ft drop into William's Creek Campground at mile 16.  I started to think something was off as I descended down to the campground and began getting passed by a number of people.  The legs didn't want to turn over like I thought they should.
At the campground they had the 2nd Water Stop set up.  I met Gina and refilled my water before heading out on a gravel road that would take us to the Wager Gulch Jeep Road and up to the Continental Divide.  Gina hung with me for about 3.5 miles before the course became too steep.  This is the second spot that I felt like something was off.  When things got to their steepest I didn't feel like I had the usual power I have for steep hiking.
At AS #3 you can use a drop bag.  This is where you decide to take your winter gear up to the divide.  From year's past you can experience any sort of weather to roll in, from heavy snow with zero visibility to hail and lightening.  This year looked to be a good one so I took a small packable jacket, a buff and gloves and headed up up up.  I really hit a wall on this 13 mile divide section.  Physically I felt good but just couldn't make my legs run for any length of time without taking a break and hiking.  I still don't know if it was the elevation or something else or a combination of the two.  Somewhere in there I decided the race was over and it was time to just enjoy the scenery and time on the trail.  From then on I didn't pay any attention to my watch and just made consistent forward progress.
The day ended with me running a little over 13 hours and enjoying a great day in the high Colorado Mtns.  Gina didn't get to run this one due to an injury, so we'll have to go back sometime.  That may be my opportunity to put it all together for a decent run and time.  You can't beat running in the San Juan Mtns.  I recommend it to anyone wanting a rocky mtn experience.

I took a bunch of pics and have them uploaded here - https://www.facebook.com/josh.gilbert.31/media_set?set=a.10204464627718609.1073741839.1319401914&type=3